Capital dating back to 1000 ad
Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary.The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities are not always reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries.
For times predating the Ottoman period, a distinction must be made between the history of the Turkic peoples, and the history of the territories now forming the Republic of Turkey, essentially the histories of ancient Anatolia and Thrace.
They are places of both physical beauty and spiritual significance. They are the monasteries of the world and some of them are simply breathtakingly beautiful, with a fascinating past to boot. This monastery is located on top a hill in the Indus Valley, just East of the Capital of Ladkah, India.
This monastery includes a temple known as Lakhang Nyerma, dedicated to Goddess Dorje Chenmo.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area).
Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population.